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Hepatitis D virus genome

Hepatitis D - Wikipedi

Abstract This work reviews specific related aspects of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) reproduction, including virion structure, the RNA genome, the mode of genome replication, the delta antigens, and the assembly of HDV using the envelope proteins of its helper virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV) BACKGROUND: There is no cell line susceptible to hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection and capable of stable replication of its genome. Different genetic-based approaches have been introduced to initiate HDV replication events so far Sequencing of the Hepatitis D Virus RNA WHO International Standard HQ005369 was deposited in GenBank along with HQ005371 and seven others from a study of nine Turkish patients. A sample mix-up or clerical error may have resulted in the incorrect association of identifier and sequence Hepatitis D virus is an incomplete virus because it can only replicate in the presence of Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis D virus has a small single-stranded RNA genome that only encodes one virus-specific protein (delta antigen). This genome is encapsulated within a protein coat of HBsAg that allows the hepatitis D virus to gain cell entry. During the period when hepatitis D virus is replicating in cells, hepatitis B replication is temporarily suspended Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an unusual, single-stranded, circular RNA virus with a number of similarities to certain plant viral satellites and viroids. This virus requires hepadna virus helper functions for propagation in hepatocytes, and is an important cause of acute and severe chronic liver damage in many regions of the world

hepatitis B virus (HBV) are coinfected with hepatitis D virus (HDV) and have a high risk to develop liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma within a few years. Until 2020, there was no specific treatment option for the large majority of these patients; off-label use of pegylated interferon-α (pegIFNα) displays only approx. twenty pe Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact. Year introduced: 1998.

The genome size of RNA viruses is generally shorter than that of DNA viruses and ranges approximately from 2 to 31 kb. The smallest RNA virus identified to date is the human hepatitis D virus (HDV) which is about 1.7 kb in size and contains only one ORF [refs 4-7 in free online article]. Entered by Hepatitis D virus (HDV) was discovered 40 years ago in the liver of individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), a liver-specific pathogen present in ca. 250 million people Quantitative characterization of hepatitis delta virus genome edition by next-generation sequencing. Virus Res. 2018 Jan 2;243:52-59. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2017.10.003. Epub 2017 Oct 4 CHARACTERISTICS: Hepatitis D virus is currently unclassified and has been assigned to its own separate genus: Deltavirus (1). The HDV virion is 36 to 43 nm in diameter. It contains a circular or linear RNA genome surrounded by a nucleocapsid protein called HDV antigen which is in turn surrounded by an envelope consisting of Hepatitis B surface.

The hepatitis D virion is composed of a coat of HBV envelope proteins surrounding the nucleocapsid, which consists of a single-stranded, circular RNA genome complexed with delta antigen, the viral protein Hepatitis D Virus •A unique virus -similar to satellite viroids in plants •15-60 million infected people worldwide •5-10% infection rate in people with chronic hepatitis B •Single stranded RNA genome •Codes for only one protein (HDV antigen) •Defective -needs HBV to express its coat protein (HBsAg The hepatitis D virus is a defective pathogen that requires the presence of the hepatitis B virus for infection. The hepatitis D virion is composed of an outer lipoprotein envelope made of the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus and an inner ribonucleoprotein structure in which the hepatitis D virus genome resides Biochemical and electron microscopic data indicate that the human hepatitis δ viral agent contains a covalently closed circular and single-stranded RNA genome that has certain similarities with..

Genome size (smallest known RNA virus genome) - Hepatitis

In virus: Chronic and slowly progressive diseases that causes hepatitis is designated hepatitis delta virus, which has not yet been classified taxonomically but is a small enveloped virus containing a circular RNA genome; hepatitis B virus serves as a helper for replication of hepatitis delta virus, the virions of which contain hepatitis B surface antigen (HB s Ag) The hepatitis D virus can cause an acute or chronic infection, or both. Acute hepatitis D. Acute hepatitis D is a short-term infection. The symptoms of acute hepatitis D are the same as the symptoms of any type of hepatitis and are often more severe. 19 Sometimes your body is able to fight off the infection and the virus goes away HCV Genome Organization and Function The Flaviviridae family is divided into three genera: flavivirus, pestivirus, and hepacivirus. Flaviviruses include yellow fever virus, dengue fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus The hepatitis D virus (HVD) has a specific target: it infects only people carrying the hepatitis B virus (HBV). As with other co-infections, the combination of hepatitis B and D causes more liver.

Hepatitis A, B, C, D and E viruses: structure of their

  1. The hepatitis D virus (HDV, also called the delta virus) is a defective pathogen that requires the presence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) for infection. The HD virion is composed of an outer lipoprotein envelope made of the surface antigen of the HBV (HBsAg) and an inner ribonucleoprotein structure in which the HDV genome resides
  2. Three hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotypes, I, II, and III, divided into subtypes A and B, infect humans. Genotype I is the most frequently reported, while genotype II is hardly ever isolated, and its genetic diversity is unknown. From 2002 to 2007, a French epidemiological survey of HAV identified 6 IIA isolates, mostly from patients who did not travel abroad. The possible African origin of IIA.
  3. HDV genome — The HDV genome is a small RNA molecule (1676 to 1683 nucleotides in size) bearing some structural analogies with plant viroids and virusoids [ 1 ]. HDV RNA is a single-stranded circle, with a high degree of self-complementarity and G+C content causing the circle to collapse as a rod-like structure [ 1 ]
  4. Hepatitis B virus is a member of the Hepadnavirus family. The virus particle, called Dane particle (), consists of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein.The nucleocapsid encloses the viral DNA and a DNA polymerase that has reverse transcriptase activity similar to retroviruses. The outer envelope contains embedded proteins which are involved in viral.
  5. al sequence of the hepatitis C virus genome. Jpn J Exp Med. 1990 Jun; 60 (3):167-177. Takeuchi K, Kubo Y, Boonmar S, Watanabe Y, Katayama T, Choo QL, Kuo G, Houghton M, Saito I, Miyamura T. Nucleotide sequence of core and envelope genes of the hepatitis C virus genome derived directly from human healthy carriers

Hepatitis D Virus Replication - PubMe

Types D, E, and G Hepatitis. There also are viral hepatitis types D, E, and G. The most important of these at present is the hepatitis D virus (HDV), also known as the delta virus or agent. It is a small virus that requires concomitant infection with HBV to survive The length of the genome of a DNA virus varies from a few kilo-bases (kb) to several hundred kb. The smallest known DNA virus is the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is 3.2 kb long and contains four open reading frames (ORFs) that encode the surface antigens, the core proteins, a polymerase, and an X protein [1, 2] GENOME ANNOUNCEMENT. It is estimated that about 18 million people have evidence of exposure to hepatitis D virus (HDV) worldwide ().The virus is most highly endemic in Mediterranean countries and the Middle East ().Studies have consistently indicated that most patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-HDV coinfection have more severe liver disease than those with HBV monoinfection (), while HDV. D hepatitis that occurs in northern South America supports the hypothesis that HDV genetic factors are important determi-nants in the pathogenesis of type D hepatitis. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a subviral agent that requires a preexisting or concurrent infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which provides the coat protein for the HDV virion.

In vitro replication of hepatitis D virus using a new

The hepatitis D virus belongs to the genus Deltavirus.Its genome is a single, negative stranded, circular RNA molecule nearly 1.7 kb in length containing about 60% C+G. A high degree of intramolecular complementarity allows about 70% of the nucleotides to be basepaired to each other to form an unbranched, double-stranded, stable, rod-shaped structure.. Hepatitis D or delta virus (HDV) is a defective single-stranded RNA virus requiring the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its expression and replication. HDV is a 35- to 37-nm spherical particle enveloped by a lipoprotein coat derived from HBsAg. HDV-RNA consists of 1680 nucleotides, and replication is limited to hepatocytes

Sequencing of the Hepatitis D Virus RNA WHO International

Approximately 5% of individuals infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are coinfected with hepatitis D virus (HDV). Chronic HBV/HDV coinfection is associated with an unfavourable outcome, with many patients developing liver cirrhosis, liver failure and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma within 5-10 years. The identification of the HBV/HDV receptor and the development of novel in vitro and. Wakita, T. et al. Production of infectious hepatitis C virus in tissue culture from a cloned viral genome. Nature Med. 11 , 791-796 (2005). CAS Google Schola

This is due to the fact that the hepatitis D virus shows genome variability, which might lead to false-negative results. [7] [8] Although the levels of HDV RNA in the serum do not correlate with the stage of the disease, or liver fibrosis , the HDV RNA quantification may be used to evaluate the response to the antiviral therapy Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its life cycle. The in vitro HDV infection system is widely used as a surrogate model to. Hepatitis D, also known as delta hepatitis, is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV).Hepatitis D only occurs in people who are also infected with the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis D is spread when blood or other body fluids from a person infected with the virus enters the body of someone who is not infected Hepatitis D virus (HDV) HDV is a hepatotropic virus with a small RNA genome (1.7 kb) that encodes a single protein, the HDV antigen (HDAg), consisting of two isoforms: the small 24-kDa HDAg.

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) - the D is for delta - is a viral enigma that doesn't act like a normal virus. It is helpless - that is, it can't infect a cell - without its viral accomplice, the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and makes infection with HBV worse. Delta virus can only cause illness Continue reading Hepatitis D Coinfection with Hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Whereas it is known that HBV infection is endemic in Nigeria, there is only little data about HDV prevalence available. Here, we assessed the HDV seroprevalence and determined the HDV and HBV genotypes distribution among HBsAg positive individuals in Southwestern Nigeria Virus. Any of a heterogeneous class of agents that share three characteristics: (1) They consist of a nucleic acid genome surrounded by a protective protein shell, which may itself be enclosed within an envelope that includes a membrane; (2) they multiply only inside living cells, and are absolutely dependent on the host cells' synthetic and energy-yielding apparatus; (3) the initial step in. Hepatitis D is a condition characterized by marked inflammation of liver. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was discovered in 1977 by Mario Rizzetto in Italy. Hepatitis D occurs in individuals who are.

Hepatitis Viruses - Medical Microbiology - NCBI Bookshel

Michitaka K, Durrazzo M, Tillmann HL, Walker D, Philipp T, Manns kb mRNA is enhanced; thus, this mutation may be relevant MP. Analysis of hepatitis C virus genome in patients with autoimmune for the occurrence of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis found in hepatitis type 2 Study reveals 3-D landscape of how hepatitis B virus interacts with human chromatins. by Li Yuan, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The model of the spatial organization of HBV DNAs in human nuclear. Evolution of Hepatitis Delta Virus RNA Genome following Long-Term Replication in Cell Culture† Jinhong Chang, Severin O. Gudima, and John M. Taylor* Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111-2497 Received 21 April 2005/Accepted 7 August 2005 Previous studies have defined a novel cell culture system in which. @article{Flichman2009FullLengthGC, title={Full-Length Genome Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype H Strain Isolated from Serum Samples Collected from Two Chronically Infected Patients in Argentina}, author={D. Flichman and O. Galdame and B. Livellara and Marcela Viaut and A. Gadano and R. Campos}, journal={Journal of Clinical. hepatitis D virus (HDV) (hepatitis delta virus) an unclassified defective RNA virus, thought of as a parasite of the hepatitis B virus and transmitted in the same manner; it requires enzymes and other assistance from HBV to replicate. This virus magnifies the pathogenicity of hepatitis B virus many times and is the etiologic agent of hepatitis d

Hepatitis D - MeSH - NCB

  1. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is emerging as a public health concern across Europe and tools for complete genome data to aid epidemiological and virulence analysis are needed. The high sequence heterogeneity observed amongst HEV genotypes has restricted most analyses to subgenomic regions using PCR-based methods, which can be unreliable due to poor.
  2. Hepatitis D Virus. Characteristics—Defective virus that uses hepatitis B surface antigen as its protein coat. HDV can replicate only in cells already infected with HBV (i.e., HBV is a helper virus for HDV). HDV has one serotype (because HBV has only one serotype)
  3. Hepatitis C Genotype: Your Questions Answered. Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. The virus is transmitted through blood and rarely through sexual contact.

Enveloped viruses distinct from HBV induce dissemination

  1. Introduction. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common cause of liver disease and the prototype member of the family Hepadnaviridae [].Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, HBV infections continue to be a public health problem [2, 3].In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that over 257 million people are chronically infected with HBV [4-6]
  2. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT. NAME: Hepatitis D Virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: HDV, Delta Hepatitis Footnote 1 CHARACTERISTICS: Hepatitis D virus is currently unclassified and has been assigned to its own separate genus: Deltavirus Footnote 1.The HDV virion is 36 to 43 nm in diameter. It contains a circular or linear RNA genome surrounded by a nucleocapsid protein called HDV antigen which.
  3. A statistical analysis of the nucleotide sequence variability in 14 published hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes was carried out using parametric and nonparametric methods. A parametric statistical model revealed that the different regions of the genome differed significantly in their variability. The conclusion was supported by a nonparametric kernel-density model of the HBV genome
  4. Based on its genome structure and RNA sequence homology, HPgV is themost closely related human virus to HCV .Although not associated with hepatitis or other acute diseases, the virus is associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (3, 4, 7, 21). Since HPgV does not cause hepatitis, and there are no data to suggest that the surgeon GB was.
  5. ation Survey (NHANES), 1988-2012

Quantitative characterization of hepatitis delta virus

HDV is a defective RNA virus and an obligate satellite of HBV that infects humans either concomitantly with HBV or after HBV infection [].Its genome is a circular, negative sense, and single-stranded RNA of approximately 1.7 kb in length [].The HDV anti-genome contains a unique open reading frame that encodes the small (sHDAg) and large (LHDAg) hepatitis delta antigens from the same reading. For hepatoviruses like hepatitis A virus (HAV), the identity of the receptor has remained elusive. Outside cells, this unusual member of the Picornaviridae family exists both as nonenveloped 'naked' virions (nHAV), comprised of a protein shell (capsid) surrounding an RNA genome, and 'quasi-enveloped' virions (eHAV), in which the capsids. The agent was finally identified in 1989 when the genome of the virus was cloned and the agent was designated the hepatitis C virus (HCV) [ 1 ]. HCV is closely related to flaviviruses and pestiviruses. Its genetic organization and protein products classify it in the Flaviviridae family, although its diversity is great enough for it to be. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype D (HBV/D) is globally widespread, and ten subgenotypes (D1 to D10) showing distinct geographic distributions have been described to date. The evolutionary history of HBV/D and its subgenotypes, for which few complete genome sequences are available, in the Americas is not well understood. The main objective of the current study was to determine the full-length.

Hepatitis D virus MSDSonlin

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes chronic hepatitis and has long term complications. Individuals ever infected with HBV are at risk of viral reactivation under certain circumstances. This review summarizes studies on HBV persistence and reactivation with a focus on the definitions and mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on the interplay between HBV replication and host immunity as this. Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a species of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.The genome of HBV is made of circular DNA, but it is unusual because the DNA is not fully double-stranded. HBV DNA polymerase has DNA- and RNA-dependent activities. Upon entry into nucleus, the polymerase completes the partial dsDNA hepatitis D antigen (HDAg) per genome.11,12 Because of the high GC content of the nucleotide sequence,12 the circular genome, which is unique to animal viruses and more closely related to plant viroids than to human pathogens,13 can fold into an unbranched, rod-like structure with 74% intra molecular base-pairing. Virus life cycl

Hepatitis D Virus Antigens. Hepatitis D virus (HDV), also known as Delta virus, is an RNA virus that infects hepatocytes and causes hepatitis D. HDV can infect only individuals who have already infected by Hepatitis B virus. More than 15 million people all over the world were co-injected by HDV and HBV. Three genotypes (I-III) were identified Replication of the Hepatitis Virus Genome Christoph Seeger and William S. Mason Fox Chase Cancer Center Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 191 11 Five strains of hepadnavirus have been identified. The prototype is hu- man hepatitis B virus (HBV), first described as a primary cause of post- transfusion hepatitis (Blumberg et al. 1967) Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of end-stage liver disease and a leading indication for liver transplantation. Current therapy fails in many instances and is associated with significant side effects. HCV encodes only a few proteins and depends heavily on host factors for propagation. Each of these host dependencies is a potential therapeutic target

Hepatitis delta virus - The Lance

  1. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most prevalent viral infections in humans and represents a serious public health problem. In Colombia, our group reported recently the presence of subgenotypes F3, A2 and genotype G in Bogotá. The aim of this study was to characterize the HBV genotypes circulating in Quibdó, the largest Afro-descendant community in Colombia
  2. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most widespread human pathogens, with worldwide over 250 million people being infected, and an annual death toll of about 1 million globally ().Infection of liver cells with HBV leads to acute hepatitis B, which is self-limiting in about 90-95% of cases
  3. Hepatitis D, also known as the hepatitis delta virus, is an infection that causes the liver to become inflamed. This swelling can impair liver function and cause long-term liver problems.
  4. Virus hepatitisa D (krajš.HDV ali VHD), tudi virus hepatitisa delta ali agens delta, je satelitski virus z enoverižno, negativno usmerjeno krožno RNK, ki jo obdaja kapsida HBsAg. Uvrščamo ga v rod Deltavirus družine Deltaviridae.Povzroča hepatitis D in se prenaša parenteralno, skupaj z virusom hepatitisa B. Gre namreč za defektni virus, ki se lahko pomnožuje le v navzočnosti virusa.
  5. Hepatitis B is a life-threatening liver infection that is caused by the hepatitis B virus, whereas, hepatitis D infection only occurs in people who are infected with the hepatitis B virus. It.
  6. a and Nanopore methods for whole genome sequencing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) @article{McNaughton2019Illu
  7. a Technology: Genome Analyzer IIx Fancello L., Raoult D. and Desnues C. (2012) Computational tools for viral metagenomics and their application in clinical research. Virology 434: 162-17

Hepatitis D virus - Osmosi

Structure, sequence and expression of the hepatitis delta

Introduction. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for virion assembly and propagation [Reference Sureau, Guerra and Lanford 1- Reference Taylor, Fields, Knipe and Howley 5].It is a small RNA virus with a circular RNA genome of approximately 1.7 Kb in length [Reference Flores, Ruiz-Ruiz and Serra 6] Journal of Medical Virology 71:499-503 (2003) Complete Genome Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Isolates From Patients With Chronic HBV Infection in Korea Zagaa Odgerel,1,2 Kyung Bo Nho,1,2 Ju Young Moon,1,2 Sun Ho Kee,1,2 Kwang Sook Park,1,2 Ki-Joon Song,1,2 Luck Ju Baek,1,2 Jong Eun Yeon,3 Kwan Soo Byun,3 Chang Hong Lee,3 and Jin-Won Song1,2* 1 Department of. Figure 1.Schematic representation of the HBV genome. The inner circles represent the partial double-stranded DNA molecule and location of the direct repeat (DR) sequences, while the solid gray arrows illustrate the four open reading frames in the HBV genome: polymerase (P), precore (preC), core (C), hepatitis b X protein (X), and envelope (preS1, preS2, and S) Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae , is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-Å structure of a HEV-like particle (VLP) shows that each capsid protein contains 3 linear domains that form distinct structural elements: S, the continuous capsid; P1, 3-fold protrusions; and P2, 2-fold spikes hepatitis, and the most common forms are hepatitis A, B, and C.(1) Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that ∼2000 million people worldwide have been infected with HBV and that 350 million of these are chronically infected. Of thos

Hepatitis D virus infectious agent Britannic

The family Hepadnaviridae comprises 2 genera (Orthohepadnavirus and Avihepadnavirus), and viruses classified within these genera have a narrow host range.The genus Orthohepadnavirus consists of pathogens that infect mammals, and it currently contains 4 species: hepatitis B virus, woodchuck hepatitis virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woolly monkey hepatitis B virus Hepatitis E virus (HEV) generally causes self-limiting viral hepatitis. However, in pregnant women, HEV infection can be severe and has been associated with up to 30% mortality in the third trimester. Additionally, HEV infection in pregnancy is also associated with high rates of preterm labor and vertical transmission. HEV is now recognized as a global health problem in both developing and. of hepatitis D virus infection in chronic HBV carriers varies widely with geographical region. Vaccination Vaccination against HBV at birth remains the main strategy for the elimination of hepatitis B and the reduction of liver cancer incidence. In 1981, the first plasma­derived hepatitis B vaccine was licensed in the USA. It was replaced in. viral hepatitis; hepatitis G virus; fulminant hepatic failure; liver transplantation; Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a dramatic condition resulting from severe impairment of the function of a previously normal liver.1 Massive or submassive destruction of hepatocytes as a consequence of infection with hepatitis viruses A to E is the most frequently recognised cause of FHF worldwide, but the.

Hepatitis D NIDD

RECENT studies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) have shown that this small DNA virus has four open reading frames: the S gene coding for an envelope protein (hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg), the. Duggal P, Thio CL, Wojcik GL, Goedert JJ, Mangia A, Latanich R et al. Genome-wide association study of spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus infection: Data from multiple cohorts. Annals of internal medicine . 2013 Feb 19;158(4):235-245 Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), an enveloped virus containing a partially double stranded, circular DNA genome, and classified within the family hepadnavirus.10, 15, 23, 30, 31 The virus interferes with the functions of the liver while replicating in hepatocytes. The immune system i Abstract. The nucleotide sequence of the Japanese type of hepatitis C virus (HCV-J) genome, consisting of 9413 nucleotides, was determined by analyses of cDNA clones from plasma specimens from Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis. HCV-J genome contains a long open reading frame that can encode a sequence of 3010 amino acid residues

Hepatitis viruses

HCV Genome and Life Cycle - Hepatitis C Viruses - NCBI

Comprehensive analysis of mutations in the hepatitis delta

In 1989 Choo et al. reported the cloning of a part of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome isolated from experimentally infected chimpanzee plasma. 12 Specificity for parenterally transmitted non-A. Hepatitis C guidance: AASLD-IDSA recommendations for testing, managing, and treating adults infected with hepatitis C virus. Hepatology . 2015 Sep. 62 (3):932-54. [Medline]

HBV Viral Structure - HBVHepatitis A virus (HAV): properties, classification, modeSubversion of RNA Processing Pathways by the HepatitisPathogens | Free Full-Text | Hepatitis B Virus MolecularaClassification of virus - Online Biology Notes