Evolution of gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection that has been known to mankind since medieval times. It was referred to as the clap before the actual cause was discovered. Discovery of the.. Evolution of Within-Host Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae that has become resistant to a wider range of antibiotics in recent decades One current proposal is that gonococcus evolved from a commensal ancestor—that is, an organism whose colonization does not typically elicit a response from the host [3,4]. (The reasons for this proposal are beyond my area of expertise, so curious readers should consult the original studies.

In terms of the potential for pharyngeal gonorrhea to serve as a site where AMR is most likely to evolve, such infections occur at a microbiologically complex site where there is substantial potential for genetic exchange of resistance mutations; however, the frequency and impact of such exchange is unknown Gonorrhea, colloquially known as the clap, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infection may involve the genitals, mouth, or rectum. Infected men may experience pain or burning with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain. Infected women may experience burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between. Gonorrhea has developed resistance to nearly all of the antibiotics used for its treatment. We are currently down to one last recommended and effective class of antibiotics, cephalosporins, to treat this common infection. This is an urgent public health threat because gonorrhea control in the United States largely relies on our ability to. The findings, published in the journal mBio, provide unique insights into the evolution of drug-resistant gonorrhea that should be useful in monitoring the disease and perhaps in defending against.. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea. CDC's updated recommendations for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in adolescents and adults: two-drug approach no longer recommended; treat with just one 500 mg injection of ceftriaxone. Gonorrhea has progressively developed resistance to the antibiotic drugs prescribed to treat it

Gonorrhea History - News-Medical

Harper and colleagues therefore proposed a 3-stage model for the distribution and evolution of different forms of Treponema pallidum: (1) An original non-venereal form in the Old World spread. Gonorrhea Biology & Genetics. Scientists have determined the complete genetic code, or sequence (genetic blueprint), of the N. gonorrhoeae genome. They are using this information to help us better understand how the bacterium causes disease and becomes resistant to antibiotics Gonorrhea is an infection caused by a sexually transmitted bacterium that infects both males and females. Gonorrhea most often affects the urethra, rectum or throat. In females, gonorrhea can also infect the cervix. Gonorrhea is most commonly spread during vaginal, oral or anal sex. But babies of infected mothers can be infected during childbirth

Superbugs: The Evolution of Gonorrhea Posted on April 28, 2014 by Kari Camille Tyler Contributed by Nyasia Jones, Chris Richardson and Kari Tyler A common misconception regarding evolution it that it is slow, and because it is slow, humans are not influencing it Longitudinal Analysis of the Evolution and Dissemination of Neisseria gonorrhoeaeStrains (Saskatchewan, Canada, 2005 to 2008) Reveals Three Major Circulating Strains and Convergent Evolution of Ciprofloxacin and Azithromycin Resistance Sinisa Vidovic,aSidharath D. Thakur,aGreg B. Horsman,bPaul N. Levett,bVahid Anvari,cand Jo-Anne R. Dillona, Longitudinal analysis of the evolution and dissemination of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains (Saskatchewan, Canada, 2005 to 2008) reveals three major circulating strains and convergent evolution of ciprofloxacin and azithromycin resistance. Vidovic S(1), Thakur SD, Horsman GB, Levett PN, Anvari V, Dillon JA The host-adapted human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhoea. Consistent with its proposed evolution from an ancestral commensal bacterium, N. gonorrhoeae has retained.. Evolution of within-host Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea Beverly Burgett1, Marisabel Rodriguez Rodriguez2, Samantha Ryan3, William Tressel4, Oscar Patterson 3, and Stephen Wirkus 1Simpson College, Indianola, IA 2University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX 3Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 4University of San Diego, San Diego, CA July 30, 2012.

Evolution of Within-Host Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhe

  1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is evolving into a superbug with resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea, which is a major public health concern globally. Given the global nature of gonorrhea, the high rate of usage of antimicrobials, suboptimal control and
  2. ations, presumably on the basis of urethral discharge. 1 promulgation of increasingly comprehensive STD treatment and prevention guidelines, the evolution of the behavioral sciences, and indirectly all the.
  3. ated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum

The Ancient History of Gonorrhea - S Y N A P S I

Histoire de gonorrhée. La gonorrhée est une infection transmise d'a sexuellement - qui a été connue à l'humanité depuis des époques médiévales. Elle a été mentionnée pendant que les. During the past few decades, many strains of bacteria have evolved resistance to antibiotics. An example of this is Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteria that causes gonorrhea, shown at right. In the 1960s penicillin and ampicillin were able to control most cases of gonorrhea

Brief History of Evolving Diagnostics and Therapy for

Evolution, Origin & Spread of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae Since the beginning of the antimicrobial era (1930s), N. gonorrhoeae has repeatedly demonstrated its extraordinary capacity to develop resistance.. Super gonorrhea has outsmarted nearly every drug on the market, and experts are struggling to keep up with its evolution. Shield yourself and others from untreatable gonorrhea by getting routine STI screenings, being open with your partner, and always wearing a condom Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest threats to human health and urgently requires effective global surveillance [].Gonorrhea is one of the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide causing substantial morbidity and economic loss [2,3,4].The resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) and fluoroquinolones has been defined. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is evolving into a superbug with resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea, which is a major public health concern globally

Gonorrhea - Wikipedi

Basic Information about ARG - STD information from CD

This narrative has focused on the evolution of gonorrhea control efforts in the United States, with an emphasis on events before the 1970s, and does not provide a detailed description of the large amounts of high-quality research and recommendations for control conducted in parallel in other parts of the globe over the past 50 years, often led. A longitudinal study combining multilocus sequence typing with molecular evolutionary analysis determined the distribution, population structure, and evolution of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Saskatchewan that were collected between 2005 and 2008. Of 195 gonococcal isolates examined, 29 sequence types (STs) were identified with 3 major circulating strains (ST-1. Gonorrhea - an evolving disease of the new millennium - INTRODUCTION Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) is a Gram-negative diplococcus, an obligate human pathogen, and the etiologic agent of the sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhea. The gonococcus infects a diverse array of mucosal surfaces, some of which include the urethra, the endocervix, the pharynx, conjunctiva and the rectum Gonorrhea is a major cause of serious reproductive complications in women and can facilitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Effective treatment is a cornerstone of U.S. gonorrhea control efforts, but treatment of gonorrhea has been complicated by the ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to develop antimicrobial resistance Issue: The Evolution of Infectious Agents in Relation to Sex Evolutionary approaches to sexually transmitted infections are shaped to be covert; gonorrhea and chlamydia are frequently asymptomatic or cause only minor symptoms. It is also possible that the reproductiv

The full story... Concerns about evolution of gonorrhea 'superbug' in Australia. Lucy Carter reported this story on Tuesday, December 29, 2015 08:25:00 | MP3 downloa Concerns about evolution of gonorrhea 'superbug' in Australia. Posted Tue 29 Dec 2015, 8:28am LUCY CARTER: Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease, spread through unprotected vaginal, anal. Gonorrhea is a debilitating disease, which was responsible for an estimated 445,000 years lived with disability (YLD) in 2015 . Urogenital gonorrhea may be asymptomatic in 40% of men and manifests most commonly as urethritis . It is also asymptomatic in more than half of women . In men, untreated urethral infection can lead to epididymitis. The lack of any decline in gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence highlights the need to enhance STI services beyond clinic-based syndromic case management, to reinvigorate primary STI and HIV prevention and, especially for women, to screen for asymptomatic infections. Fig 4A shows the evolution of antibiotic resistance for gonorrhea, based on. Researchers discovered that genetic changes had occurred, leading to the evolution of the strain, which appears more like relatives associated with gonorrhea, Yih-Ling Tzeng, an assistant.

Gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is among the most common and most widely recognized sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) throughout the world. It is one of the five classical venereal diseases, with syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and donovanosis (granuloma inguinale). Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Gramnegative diplococcus that in clinical. Describe the evolution of gonorrhea treatment recommendations during the last 5 years. Describe the currently recommended treatment for gonorrhea. Disclosures. As an organization accredited by the ACCME, Medscape, LLC, requires everyone who is in a position to control the content of an education activity to disclose all relevant financial. The findings, which appear in the journal mBio, provide unique insights into the evolution of drug-resistant gonorrhea that should be useful in monitoring the disease and perhaps in defending. We had in view to evaluate the evolution of incidence of syphilis, gonorrhea, C trachomatis genitally infections and HIV infection/AIDS and to identify the main factors implicated in this evolution. Results. In 2012 were recorded 1,702 new cases of syphilis. The incidence of syphilis has risen steadily from 7.1 per ten thousand in 1986 to 19.8.

How did gonorrhea become a drug-resistant superbug

  1. Gonorrhea is a reportable disease in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Management of Sex Partners. Recent sexual contacts of persons treated for gonorrhea and mothers of infected newborns should generally be tested for gonorrhea and treated presumptively. If found to be infected, they should be advised to refer their recent sex partners
  2. Dr. Marrazzo says the case in the U.K. is a natural expected evolution of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium that causes gonorrhea. Doctors have been treating gonorrhea with antibiotics.
  3. Testing for gonorrhea looks for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea bacteria) in your body. Urine samples can be used to test both men and women. The most accurate way to perform the test is to collect first-catch urine. This is the initial portion of your urine stream that exits as you begin to urinate
  4. Gonorrhea (GC), caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States with 321,849 cases reported in 2011. 1 Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) STD Surveillance Network have shown that the proportion of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees reporting a history of GC infection within the.
  5. Methods Authors' details We had in view to evaluate the evolution of incidence of 1 Department of Dermatology, Clinical Hospital of Infectious and Tropical syphilis, gonorrhea, C trachomatis genitally infections Diseases Dr. Victor Babeş, Bucharest, Romania. 2Public Health Institute and HIV infection/AIDS and to identify the main.
  6. In the near future, gonorrhea may become untreatable in certain circumstances. Herein, the history of antibiotics used for treatment of gonorrhea, the evolution of resistance emergence in N. gonorrhoeae, the linkage between resistance and biological fitness of N. gonorrhoeae, lessons learned, and future perspectives are reviewed and discussed
Aparato reproductor

The findings, published in the journal mBio, provide unique insights into the evolution of drug-resistant gonorrhea that should be useful in monitoring the disease and perhaps in defending against it. Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Emanating from the cell bodies are Pili - protein polymers involved in movement, adhesion, and DNA transformation - Image. Steadily and relentlessly, the bacterium that causes gonorrhea has slipped past medicine's defenses, acquiring resistance to once-reliable drugs, including penicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin

PPT - Super Gonorrhea?! EW! PowerPoint Presentation - ID

Distinguishing the recent introduction of quinolone resistant gonococci into a population from diversification of resistant strains already in the population is important for planning effective infection control strategies. We applied molecular evolutionary analyses to DNA sequences from 9 housekeeping genes and gyrA, parC and porB of 24 quinolone resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG) and 24. New Cases Of Drug-Resistant Gonorrhea. The European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) says that the past few months have seen a marked increase in reports of extensively drug-resistant gonorrhea in nations around the world. The ECDC reports that February and March of this year saw at least three new cases in Australia and Europe. . Australia's health agency released a. Evolution underlies every aspect of biology, but many people have an impression that evolution is restricted to the study of fossils revealing how large organisms are related to one another. Evolution continues to occur, and we can study both microevolution and macroevolution of microbes within human lifetimes By understanding the evolution, emergence, and spread of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae, including its molecular and phenotypic mechanisms, resistance to antimicrobials used clinically can be anticipated, future methods for genetic testing for AMR might permit region-specific and tailor-made antimicrobial therapy, and the design of novel antimicrobials. April 2017 Our first BioRxiv preprint: the impact of rapid susceptibility testing and antibiotic selection strategy on the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea — great work with Ashleigh Tuite and colleagues!. March 2017 Debra Van Egeren from the Systems Biology program is rotating in the lab. Welcome, Debra! March 2017 Hurray, Kevin

Condoms are effective in preventing the transmission of gonorrhea. The evolution of antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae may ultimately affect the control of the disease. Soon after their introduction, gonococcal resistance to sulfonamides occurred rapidly and was common by the 1940s. Penicillin was then found to be effective for. SARS-CoV-2 has been evolving for at least 7 years. Download PDF Copy. By Dr. Liji Thomas, MD Jun 25 2020. The current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the vast unknown of virology, which continues. 1. This new super strain is but a result of evolution. Some strains of neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterial organism that causes gonorrhea, are more susceptible to antibiotics than others.And.

Antibiotic Resistant Gonorrhea - STD information from CD

Clinical evaluation and treatment for gonorrhea are preferred, but EPT can be used for heterosexual contacts of patients with gonorrhea in whom clinical evaluation is unlikely. In this situation, oral cefixime 800 mg orally once plus presumptive treatment for chlamydia is used for treatment of the partner [ 1 ] The 10 human-restricted Neisseria species all colonize mucosal surfaces, but show a spectrum of pathogenicity. The commensal Neisseria do not normally cause pathology, while the two pathogenic species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, straddle the border between commensalism and pathogenicity The Fluoroquinolones are not recommended in the US to treat the STD because there has been an evolution of the new strain of N. gonorrhea which is resistant to the drug. Because of the emergence of drug- resistant gonococcal infection and reduced effectiveness of the medicine, the evidence-based practice requires the treatment approach to be.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases: An Evolutionary View

Unlike other bacteria, Neisseria that cause meningitis and gonorrhea evolve very rapidly because of certain intrinsic properties. For example, they have a great capacity to acquire genes from. Use and misuse of antibiotics has spurred the evolution of drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia, gonorrhea, and other infectious diseases

Gonorrhea Biology & Genetics NIH: National Institute of

The Gonorrhea: Pipeline Review, we have provided informed estimates on the evolution of the market for the period 2021-2031. Scope of the Report. A detailed assessment of the therapeutic pipeline activity and therapeutic assessment of the products by development stage, product type, route of administration, molecule type, and mechanism. Biological Evolution and Cultural Change A factor that has been identified as an important contributor to the development of chronic diseases in humans is the mismatch between the relatively slow pace of human biological evolution compared to the relatively rapid pace of human cultural and lifestyle change [1] Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global health concern. Strains from two internationally circulating sequence types, ST-7363 and ST-1901, have acquired resistance to treatment with third-generation cephalosporins mainly due to the emergence of mosaic penA alleles. These two STs were first detected in Japan; however, when and how the mosaic penA alleles emerged and spread. Gonorrhea infection should prompt physicians to test for other sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus. The most common site of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is the. Throat infection is believed to perhaps play a special role in the evolution of hard-to-treat gonorrhea, Handsfield says, because of the kinds of bacteria found in that part of the body

The bacteria that cause gonorrhea are evolving faster than we can develop effective antibiotics against them, and a return to the era of untreatable gonorrhea could see a rise in the particularly nasty complications that arise from a long-term gonorrheal infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease and epididymitis 1. This natural philosopher proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics - for example, giraffe offspring acquired longer necks because their parents stretching to reach higher leaves. A. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. B

the evolution of this pathogen [10,17-19]. In order to understand the evolutionary processes act-ing on N. gonorrhoeae transmission dynamics in a com-munity with a high incidence of gonorrhea, such as Shanghai, China, we estimated genetic diversity, recom-bination, growth, and selective pressure for theporB Topics Ars Technica bacteria Biology Evolution nature WIRED is where tomorrow is realized. It is the essential source of information and ideas that make sense of a world in constant transformation The discovery offers insight into evolution as well as gonorrhea's nimble ability to continually adapt and survive in its human hosts. Gonorrhea, which is transmitted through sexual contact, is one of the oldest recorded diseases and one of a few exclusive to humans The infection is easily spread and occurs most often in people who have many sex partners. The origin of Gonorrhea is bacteria which came from the victim's decaying body's of the Black Plague. This STI is now being contracted through oral, anal, and vaginal sexual inter-coarse. Some men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all Gonorrhea Superbug Adapts To Resist Antibiotics Through 'Evolution In Action' 07/17/2013 11:03am EDT Sexually transmitted diseases are always dangerous, but strains of the infections that can mutate and become resistant to drugs are making treatment more and more challenging

The evolution of sexually transmitted diseases. Story by Jennifer Sandy. Imagine living with a disease that can make you a social pariah. It can cause people to fear your touch and your presence. This is the reality HIV-positive Sean McGregor, 18, has faced for the past two years. I've had people who knew I was HIV-positive refuse to shake. Gonorrhea infection has a slight male prevalence secondary to the increased likelihood that males will manifest urogenital symptoms and also due to increased diagnoses among men who have sex with men. Over the last decade, the incidence of gonorrheal STIs has increased as a result of the rising number of antibiotic-resistant strains

antibiotic resistance | Britannica

Gonorrhea resists many antibiotics, and ceftriaxone is considered last resort; The team is now working to find out more about the role in mutant AcnB and the evolution of the superbug the evolution and spread of multi-drug resistant TB. TB is only the tip of the iceberg. Use and misuse of antibiotics, especially in the United States, has spurred the evolution of drug-resistant forms of pneumonia, gonorrhea, and other infectious diseases. Kreiswirth laments, We've created this problem. Multi-drug resistance is a man All told, there were nearly 2.3 million cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis—200,000 more than in 2016, which was a record-breaking year in its own right One example of this is the treatment of gonorrhea with Penicillin. Penicillin was able to treat gonorrhea when the treatments first started in the 1960s, but today 24% of gonorrheal bacteria is resistant to Penicillin in the US and 98% is resistant in Southeast Asia. Information was gathered from these sources

Gonorrhea - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

Molluscum contagiosum: Scientists are uncertain of the incubation period of molluscum contagiosum. Current estimates range from 2 weeks to 6 months. If you're concerned about the possibility of having any of the above, seek medical help. How STDs Are Diagnosed N. gonorrhea, the bacteria that causes gonorrhea, does not survive long outside of the body. One implication of that—you can't get gonorrhea from touching toilet seats. Pregnant women with gonorrhea are at higher risk for premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, and spontaneous abortions (Morgan, 2016) Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea have been steadily increasing in the general U.S. population among both males and females since 2000. 2 A March 2020 MSMR report documented more than 221,000 incident infections of chlamydia and more than 34,000 incident infections of gonorrhea among active component U.S. military members between 2011 and 2019. 2. Click again to see term . Tap again to see term . Yogurt is thick and semi-solid because milk proteins are denatured to form a gel. How is this accomplished. Click card to see definition . Tap card to see definition . Bacteria in milk produce lactic acid, which causes protein denaturation. Click again to see term

Is evolution a fact or a theory? Evolution is both a fact and a theory. When a change in a population can be observed, the observed change is evolution, and it is a fact. However, the mechanism by which the change occurred (such as gonorrhea's increased resistance to an antibiotic) is open to scientific scrutiny Surveillance, Evolution, Neisseria gonorrhoeae Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the greatest threats to human health and urgently requires effective global surveillance [1]. Gonorrhea is one of the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections world-wide causing substantial morbidity and economic loss [2-4]

The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis and lymphogranu-loma venereum (LGV), and their epidemiological char-acteristics in a large city. Methods Barcelona is a city of 1,615,985 inhabitants [10] in which the obligatory notification of syphilis, gonor-rhea and LGV has been nominal since 2007. The 10 human-restricted Neisseria species all colonize mucosal surfaces, but show a spectrum of pathogenicity. The commensal Neisseria do not normally cause pathology, while the two pathogenic species, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, straddle the border between commensalism and pathogenicity.Why the pathogenic Neisseria continue to mediate host damage after thousands of years. The host-adapted human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea. Consistent with its proposed evolution from an ancestral commensal bacterium, N. gonorrhoeae has retained features that are common in commensals, but it has also developed unique features that are crucial to its pathogenesis

However, many gonorrhea patients do not exhibit any symptoms at all, making the illness as hard to diagnose as to treat. This chart maps the evolution of gonorrhea's resistance to antibiotic drugs. One concept that supports the theory of evolution states that organisms best adapted for survival are the ones that will reproduce and pass traits onto the future generations. Adaptations that can be passed on do not include When penicillin was first introduced, it was very effective in destroying most of bacteria that cause gonorrhea. The Evolution of Denver's Midtowne Spa. Jim Clarke is no stranger to change. After his time in the Army, he transitioned to the food industry, which eventually forced him into the Mile High City. Not long after moving here, he made a career jump from the food industry to LGBTQ nightlife, landing a job at the now-closed gay bar The Fox Hole. The CDC has been monitoring, and working to prevent, the evolution of drug-resistant Gonorrhea since the 1980's but it appears we are losing the battle. Resistance has been increasing overtime, with the loss of fluoroquinolones already complicating our current treatment strategies. If cephalosporin and macrolide resistance increase in.

Superbugs: The Evolution of Gonorrhea EvolutionShort

Gonorrhea can become resistant to cephalosporins when the PBP drug target mutates. Davies' group looked at the effect of those mutations on the structure of a PBP called PBP2 from a cephalosporin. When bacteria fight back. After the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a report on the threat from drug-resistant bacteria, David Hooper, an authority on the subject, discussed the issues. One of the organisms identified as urgent [by the CDC], carbapenem-resistant bacteria, are in many cases resistant to most of the. Although the diagnosis of pubic lice has seemingly plummeted as a direct result of human vanity in both sexes, cases of gonorrhea and Chlamydia have increased over the same period, a correlation.

With VEGAS System, Faster Directed Evolution Could Be aGonorrhea Symptoms + 9 Natural Ways to Relieve Them - GetPharyngula – Evolution, development, and random biologicalGonorrhea

Gonorrhea is one of several pathogens that has evolved resistance to the antibiotics. And it is spreading with growing speed. There are an estimated 550,000 super-gonorrhea infections a year in. Dual-antimicrobial regimens are not feasible for resource-poor settings, and the evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance to the medications recommended for treatment necessitates novel drugs to be evaluated. Current guidelines for evaluation and consideration of new drugs for gonorrhea treatment have limited the drug development pipeline The coevolution of parasites and their hosts has both general biological interest and practical implications in agricultural, veterinary and medical fields. Surprisingly, most medical, parasitological and ecological texts dismiss the subject with unsupported statements to the effect that 'successful' parasite species evolve to be harmless. When gonorrhea is not treated, risk for infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, and ectopic pregnancy goes through the roof. In fact, in the pre-antibiotic era, gonorrhea was a top cause of infertility, and there were no adequate treatments for the infection until the discovery of penicillin Humans probably didn't get swept up in evolution. Scientists have favored a model of evolution in which beneficial gene mutations quickly and dramatically sweep through a population due to the. An era of untreatable gonorrhea may be approaching, which represents an exceedingly serious public health problem. Herein, we review the evolution, origin and spread of antimicrobial resistance and resistance determinants (with a focus on extended-spectrum cephalosporins) in N. gonorrhoeae, detail the current situation regarding verified.